University of Agder交换记录–Practical English(课程)

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摘要这是关于Practical English这一门课的内容介绍, 主要记录一下这一门课程的相关内容, 也是自己回看的时候可以方便一些. 起到一个笔记本的作用吧.

简介

这是关于Practical English这门课程相关内容的记录. 会记录一下这一门课程的内容, 也是当作每一节课的课后笔记, 方便之后的回顾与复习.

会包含这一门课程的考试要求, 也会包含老师上课讲到的一些知识点. 总是我也就是当作笔记本, 都记录下来吧.

 

课程介绍

关于评分

  • 讨论组需要计算出勤次数(会有签到表);
  • 在March的最后两周, 会有一个测试, 通过之后才能参加最后的考试;
  • 2020/5/27, 3个小时的笔试考试;

关于上课教材

上课需要用到The Little, Brown Handbook (13th), 这本书是在学校是可以买到的, 但是价格应该是在700+. 网上能找到的电子版是没有这个版本的, 只有10th, 这两个版本还是差得挺大的.

但是, 可以尝试在淘宝(地区切换到中国大陆)搜一下这本书, 是可以找到相关电子版的. 具体想要哪一种就看自己了.

课程主要学习

这个暂时就写一下老师上课讲的, 关于具体的上课内容会慢慢进行更新的.

  • 单词
  • 语法的使用
  • 句子和段落的结构

 

课程内容

作业辅助网站 (可以查单词造句, 或是单词的意思等, 比直接用谷歌翻译内容要详细一些), English Dictionary

我们会从以下几个层面来进行介绍, 这四个层面是从小到大进行展开的:

  • The Word
  • The Phrase
  • The Clause
  • The Sentence

单词层面的(Word)

单词层面分类两大类:

  • Lexical words:
    • Nouns
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives
    • Adverbs
  • Function words
    • Auxiliary verbs
    • Conjunctions(连词): for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so(FAN BOYS)
    • Subjunctions(subjunctions start subclauses, and indicate things like reason, consequence, condition, or time), 可以简单理解为后面引出从句的:
      • as, because, if, that, though, since, when
      • relative pronouns can act as subjunctions: who, which (This is the car which I saw yesterday.)
    • Determiners(定冠词, occur in front of nouns, 用在名词之前, 来给出名词详细的信息):
      • a, an, the
      • this, that, these, those
      • one, two, three, any, every, each, all
      • which, what, whose
      • my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their (注意这里是没有hers之类的词语, 这个是代词)
    • Prepositions
    • Pronouns(代词, Pronouns stand alone and usually refer to something already mentioned)
      • Personal Pronous: I, you, he she, it, (me, him, her)
      • Possessive: mine: yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs

 

Phrases(短语)层面

一共有下面几种不同的短语, (注意这里是phrases层面来讲的, 上面是从word层面来讲的)

  • Noun phrases (NPs)
    • three (determiner) beautiful (premodifier, 前置修饰) dresses (head, 中心词) from Italy (postmodifier)
  • Verb phrases (VPs)
    • We own this gouse.
    • He gave up his job.
  • Adjective phrases (AdjPs)
    • extremely (premodifier) happy (head)
    • so (premodifier) happy (head) that I could jump up and down (postmodifier)
  • Adverb phrases (AdvPs)
    • very (premodifier, 这里可以是adv) quietly (head)
    • so (premodifier) quickly (head) that nobody noticed (postmodifier, 这里是subclause)
    • as (premodifier) fast (head) as he could (postmodifier, 这里是PP, 介词词组)
  • Prepositional phrases (PPs)
    • PPs are usually a NP preceded by a preposition (Preposition+NP)
    • for (preposition) some people (Nouns)
    • at (preposition) the end of the lecture (NP)

 

Clauses(短句)层面

  • An NP and VP put together into a coherent whole usually gives us clauses:
    • The very hungry caterpillar (NP) was eating (VP).
  • Two types of clauses
    • Main clauses (subject+verb): I am hungry.
    • Subordinate clauses (subjunction+main clause): since I am hungry.

下面将以下clause包含的元素(这个是重点):

  • Subjects (主语, NP)
    • 主语就是doer of the actions or holder of states
    • The man wearing that red shirt (subject) works for me.
  • Verbals (predicate, 谓语, VP)
    • If there are many verbs, all but the last are auxiliaries. The main verb comes last and decides the structure of the sentence.
    • I am going to study (main verb) arts later.
  • Object (宾语, NP)
    • Direct object (我尝试来解释一下, 有一种动词, monotransitive verb后面接一个名词, 这个就叫direct object): kick the ball (direct object)
    • Indirect object (有的动词, ditransitive verb, 后面可以接两个名词): show me (indirect object) the money (direct object)
  • predicative (complements, 补语, 补充说明subject或是object, adj or noun)
    • subject predicative (这个可以是noun或是adjective):
      • My name is Hannibal (subject complements);
      • You seem thirsty (subject complements)
      • This food taste good. (subject complements)
    • object predicative (这个可以是adjective或是noun)
      • We consider them rude (object complement, rude是修饰them的)
      • We elected her president (object complement)
  • adverbial (状语)
    • Everything that is not a subject, a verb, an object or a predicative is an adverbial.
    • There are three main types of adverbials
    • adjuncts, time (tomorrow), place (over there, up, down), manner (fearlessly)
    • disjuncts, evaluative opinions (maybe, unfortunately, possibly)
    • conjuncts, compounding adverbials (however, nevertheless, moreover)

于是clause有下面的7种组成方式

  • S-V: You are studying.
  • S-V-SP: He is a teacher.
  • S-V-DO: We like grammar.
  • S-V-IO-DO: I will give you more exercises.
  • S-V-DO-OP: You will find the exercises interesting.
  • S-V-A: We live in the southern Norway.
  • S-V-O-A: You should put your pens down.

Sentences(句子)层面

The sentences are combined by clauses.

  • A simple sentence = A main clause
  • A complex sentence = A main clause and a subclause
  • A compound sentence = Two main clause (usually combined by a conjunction)

 

 

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