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摘要这一部分是介绍关于Conclusion的相关内容. 主要会包括Conclusion的结构, Conclusion的好词好句, 还有包括Conclusion的例子介绍.


这一篇文章主要介绍关于conclusion的写法. 主要会包括三个部分.

  • Conclusion的相关结构(这里的相关结构和后一部分的好词好句不会完全按照下面的参考链接, 会加入一下我自己的理解)
  • 每一部分好的用法(好词好句)
  • Conclusion的例子, 并作简单的例子分析


参考链接: Writing Conclusions




  • 第一个功能是回顾全文, 他会将文章中写的主要内容总结一遍.
    • 重申研究的目的.
    • 总结自己研究的发现(这个相当于总结一下自己的创新点)
    • 重申研究的重要性(研究带来的好处和影响, 与之前的研究进行比较)
  • 第二个功能是给一个总的评价, 这个评价会包括这个研究的重大意义, 改进的意见, 推测未来的方向.
    • 自己这个研究存在的缺陷
    • 重申自己这个研究的优点
    • 对之后工作的建议.



Restating the aims of the study (重申研究的目的)

  • This study set out to determine ... (这项研究着手)
  • In this investigation, the aim was to assess … (这项研究的目的是)
  • The dissertation has investigate ... (本文对...进行研究)
  • The aim of the present research was to examine …
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine … (和上面的意思一样, 只不过表达不一样)
  • The main goal of the current study was to determine …
  • The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of … (当文章有多个目标的时候)


Summarising main research findings (总结研究的发现)

这一部分描述研究的内容, 可以着重说一下这一篇文章的创新点, 这一篇文章的工作量.

  • This study has identified … (研究已经确认)
  • This study(research) has (also) shown that ...
  • The second major finding was that ...
  • These experiments confiremed that ...
  • The results of this investigation show that ...
  • The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that …
  • One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that … (本研究最重要的一个发现是)
  • The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study ... (可以从这个实验中得到如下的结论)


Suggesting implications for the field of knowledge (对相关领域的建议)

这一部分相当于可以介绍研究结果带来的好处, 带来的影响(也可以理解为什么重要), 我们可以通过对比的方式, 与以前做的内容进行对比, 来突出自己做的实验的好处.

  • The results (empirical finding) of this study indicate that … (该研究, 实证研究, 证明了 ... )
  • The current data (study) highlight the importance of
  • Before this study, evidence of X was purely anecdotal. (在这项研究前, x的证据只是传闻)
  • Prior to this study it was difficult to make predictions about how … (在这项研究之前)
  • This approach will prove useful in expanding our understanding of how … (在帮助我们理解上, 这个研究是被证明是有用的)
  • This project is the first comprehensive investigation of … (该项目是第一次全面调查)
  • This work contributes to existing knowledge of X by providing … (对已有的知识提供了贡献)
  • The findings of this research provide insights for … (研究的结果为...提供了见解)
  • The study contributes to our understanding of … (研究对我们的理解是有利的)
  • These data suggest that X can be achieved through …
  • The principal theoretical implication of this study is that … (研究的主要理论意义是 ...)
  • The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies. (这项研究补充了早期的研究内容)
  • These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how … (这些发现对于理解...是有重要的意义的)
  • Although this study focuses on X, the findings may well have a bearing on … (研究也会与其他的领域是有关的)
  • The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to … (对这项研究的深入了解, 可以帮助我们)
  • The analysis of X undertaken here, has extended our knowledge of … (这里进行的调查, 帮助我们扩展了知识范围)
  • This new understanding should help to improve predictions of the impact of … (帮助我们改善预测的结果)
  • This is the first report on X from a nationally representative cohort of patients. (是这个领域的第一次的研究)
  • The methods used for this X may be applied to other Xs elsewhere in the world. (方法可以被扩展)
  • The X that we have identified therefore assists in our understanding of the role of … (帮助我们理解)
  • The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,… (对于目前研究的意义的总括)
  • This study/ The present study lays groundwork for future research into (对未来的研究奠定了基础)
  • This study/ The present study provide the first comprehensive assessment of (这项研究第一次给出综合的评定)
  • This study/ The present study establishes a quantitative framework for detecting (建立一个检测的量化的框架)
  • This study/ The present study is the only empirical investigation into the impact of … (是唯一的实验调查)
  • This study/ The present study has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of (帮助我们进行理解)
  • This study/ The present study has confirmed the findings of Smith et al. (2001) which found that… (这项研究肯定了别人的研究)
  • Our research lends support to/(The result of this study support) Wilson's model on reading comprehension. (我们的实验证明了别人的实验)
  • In short, the findings lead us to believe /(provide evidence) that ... (研究使得我们相信)


The limitations of the current study (自己这个研究的缺陷)

  • 对于缺点一些概括性的话
  • A limitation of this study is that ...
  • The major limitation of this study is the
  • The most important limitation lies in the fact that … (本研究最重要的限制在于)
  • The main weakness of this study was the paucity of … (实验的主要缺点在于缺乏)
  • An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether… (这个实验中没有被解决的问题是)
  • We readily acknowledge that there are problems with the statistic model. (我们承认...是存在问题的)
  • 缺点是在于缺少某个内容
  • This study was limited by the absence of … (这项研究受限于...的缺席)
  • The small scale of this study requires particular caution in interpreting these findings. (这一个研究的规模是比较小的)
  • It is unfortunate that the study did not include … (这一项实验没有包括)
  • The scope of this study was limited in terms of … (本研究的研究范围受限于...)
  • The study is limited by the lack of information on … (这项研究的缺点在于缺少信息)
  • 缺点在于没有评估某个指标
  • Thirdly, the study did not evaluate the use of … (这项实验没有评估...的使用)
  • 缺点在于没有普遍性
  • X makes these findings less generalisable to … (对...领域会少一些普遍意义)


Restating a finding or contribution (重申本研究的贡献)

前面说了自己研究存在的一些问题, 这一部分就是有一个转折, 重申本自己这个实验的重要性.

  • Notwithstanding these limitations, the study suggests that … (尽管会有这些限制, 但是该研究可以表明)
  • Whilst this study did not confirm X, it did partially substantiate … (虽然这个实验没有证实X, 但是他部分证明了)
  • In spite of its limitations, the study certainly adds to our understanding of the …
  • Notwithstanding the relatively limited sample, this work offers valuable insights into …
  • Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, the findings suggest … (虽然这个实验目前在少数实验者的情况下来进行的, 但是实验的结果可以表明)
  • The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice.


Making recommendations for further research work (对之后工作的建议)

  • 对之后工作的一些概括性的描述
  • Several questions still remain to be answered, so further work ... (仍有问题需要被解决)
  • This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigation.
  • Further work needs to be done to establish whether …
  • Further studies need to be carried out in order to validate …
  • Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate …
  • Further work is needed to fully understand the implications of
  • Further investigation and experimentation into X is strongly recommended.
  • Further modelling work will have to be conducted in order to determine …
  • Further research should focus on determining …
  • Further research is required to determine whether …
  • Further research should be undertaken to explore how …
  • Further research needs to examine more closely the links between X and Y.
  • Further research ould also be conducted to determine the effectiveness of ...
  • 需要进行更多的工作, 更多的实验
  • More research using controlled trials is needed to … (需要进行更多对照实验)
  • Indeed more research is needed to find out the best way to modify the ... described in this study.
  • It would be beneficial to replicate this study on large and different samples. (值得在更大的数据集上进行实验)
  • Considerably more work will need to be done to determine …
  • Large randomised controlled trials could provide more definitive evidence. (大型对照实验)
  • I suggest that before X is introduced, a study similar to this one should be carried out on …
  • More information on X would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter.
  • A further study could assess the long-term effects of … (进一步的研究来获得长期的影响)
  • Continued efforts are needed to make X more accessible to … (持续的研究需要来进行)




[重申研究的目的] [ In this paper, the existing benchmark datasets are not representing the comprehensive representation of the modern orientation of network traffic and attack scenarios. UNSWNB15 is created by establishing the synthetic environment at the UNSW cyber security lab. The key utilised IXIA tool, has provided the capability to generate a modern representative of the real modern normal and the synthetical abnormal network traffic in the synthetic environment. ] [总结自己研究的发现, 重申创新点, 工作量] [ UNSW-NB15 represents nine major families of attacks by utilising the IXIA PerfectStorm tool. There are 49 features that have been developed using Argus, Bro-IDS tools and twelve algorithms which cover characteristics of network packets. ] [对比说明自己研究的重要性] [ In contrast the existing benchmark data sets such as KDD98, KDDCUP99 and NSLKDD, realised a limited number of attacks and information of packets which are outdated. Moreover, the UNSW-NB15 is compared with KDDCUP99 data set by considering some key features and it shows the benefits. ] [对未来的建议] [ In future, it is expected that, the UNSW-NB15 data set can be helpful to the NIDS research community and considered as a modern NIDS benchmark data set. ]

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