论文写作指南–Abstract写法

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所属分类:研究生阶段
摘要这一篇文章主要介绍Abstract的写法, 主要会介绍Abstract的结构, 一些Abstract的好词好句和举例说明Abstract的写法.

Abstract简介

Abstract是什么

  • 你想要做什么
  • 你为什么想要做这个
  • 你准备如何开展
  • 最终有什么启示和结论

Abstract不是什么

  • 不是引言,目的是summarize,不是introduce;
  • 不是文章的写作计划,abstract是在最后来完成的,用来总结文章的要点;
  • 不是文章的节选,abstract必须可以独立进行阅读;

Abstract结构

注意 : abstract的结构与正文十分相似.

  • The subject matter(主题, 研究的领域, 背景介绍) => 文章的范围, 试图解决什么问题, 填补了哪些研究的困难(这里一句话说明即可)
  • the purpose of the study(研究的意义, 研究的目的) => 为什么做研究, 目的就是要解决上面说的该研究领域存在的问题
  • the way that the research is carried out(开展方式, 做了什么工作) => 如何解决问题, 如何得到实验结果(重点介绍如何展开的)
  • some findings(一些发现) =>你的发现是什么, 你的工作有什么影响, 你的发现有什么意义
  • the implications(一些启示) => 可以当作结论来进行书写
  • a conclusion(结论) => 写一下实验效果和实验效果

 

关于Abstract的结构可以看后面的例子, 结合例子来具体分析Abstract的写法. 关于Abstract的用词, 除了后面的用词以外, 还可以参考introduction的写法, 这两个部分写的内容的结构大体是相似的.

 

如何写作Abstract(用词语言等)

这一部分针对上文所说的abstract的结构, 说一下每一部分的语言使用.

研究领域与背景 -- 文章的范围, 试图解决什么问题(一句话说明白)

  • 一些词汇 : test, discuss, study, investigate
  • A novel detection and model analysis of ... is addressed in this paper.
  • The paper examines(检查) ... and considers that
  • This paper analyzes some important characteristics of ...
  • This articles discusses the reasons for ... and offers an insight into ... => 本文研讨了...的原因, 并说明了...的观点.

研究目的--为什么做研究, 为什么关心问题的结果(这一部分可以省略)

  • 一些词汇 : seek, aim, purpose, goal, objective(具体的目标)
  • The paper seeks to justify ... in terms of ... => 本文追求的目标是从...角度来论证...
  • The aim of this study is to carry out analysis for ...
  • One of the purposes of this study is to ...

研究开展方式--如何解决问题, 如何得到实验结果(重点描述)

  • 一些词汇 : test, experiment, assess(vt. 评价), compare, apply
  • More specifically, we describe an effective way of ... that allows ... that work much better than ...
  • (完整的例子)More specifically, we describe an effective way of (initializing the weights) that allows (deep autoencoder networks to learn low-dimensional codes) that work much better than (principal components analysis as a tool to reduce the dimensionality of data).
  • I report results on synthetic and real data showing that these .. algorithms correctly and efficiently find the ... in a few iterations using up to hundreds of thousands of datapoints in thousands of dimensions.
  • (完整的例子)I report results on synthetic and real data showing that these EM algorithms correctly and efficiently find the leading eigenvectors of the covariance of datasets in a few iterations using up to hundreds of thousands of datapoints in thousands of dimensions.
  • Two basic technologies are used to ...
  • Such a statistical method has been applied to
  • The present work evaluates the properties of ...
  • The experiment on ... have been carried out.

研究的一些发现--你的发现是什么, 你的发现有什么影响, 你的发现有什么意义

  • 一些词汇 : find, give, develop, provide, derive, establish, design, conclude
  • (算法的优点-效率高)It is computationally very efficient in space and time. It also naturally accommodates missing information.
  • (算法的优点-快速, 鲁棒性)Experimental results show that our method is robust, efficient and accurate.
  • (算法的有点-在实际应用中鲁棒性和效率好)We apply our method to (real Web-server logs) and obtain results that demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of (probabilistic reasoning for crawler detection).
  • The paper provides the quantiative(定性的) / qualitative(定量的) background to ...
  • The paper has developed two methods of
  • A theoretical model has been developed to predict
  • A theoretical treatment of a new model of ... is given.
  • The paper concludes that ...

研究的一些启示--进行总结(可以省略)

  • The article discusses the implications of these findings for ... and future research.
  • This paper describes the principles and techniques of ...

 

Abstract范例

第一个Abstract的范例

下面的abstract一共6句话, 分别对应六个问题.

(研究领域)[The dozens of studies on academic discourse carried out over the past 20 years have mostly focused on written academic prose (usually the technical research article in science or medicine) or on academic lectures.] (之前的研究, 背景介绍)[Other registers that may be more important for students adjusting to university life, such as textbooks, have received surprisingly little attention, and spoken registers such as study groups or on‐campus service encounters have been virtually ignored.] (研究的目的)[To explain more fully the nature of the tasks that incoming international students encounter, this article undertakes a comprehensive linguistic description of the range of spoken and written registers at U.S. universities.] (研究是如何具体开展的)[Specifically, the article describes a multidimensional analysis of register variation in the TOEFL 2000 Spoken and Written Academic Language Corpus.] (研究有什么重要的发现)[The analysis shows that spoken registers are fundamentally different from written ones in university contexts, regardless of purpose. Some of the register characterizations are particularly surprising. For example, classroom teaching was similar to the conversational registers in many respects, and departmental brochures and Web pages were as informationally dense as textbooks.] (研究的启示)[The article discusses the implications of these findings for pedagogy and future research.]

 

第二个Abstract的例子

Abstract不需要进行文献回顾. Introduction需要进行文献回顾. 研究内容可以理解为这一篇文章的创新点. 下面这个例子将研究领域和存在的问题放在了一起讲了.

  1. Moustafa, Nour, and Jill Slay. "UNSW-NB15: a comprehensive data set for network intrusion detection systems (UNSW-NB15 network data set)." In 2015 military communications and information systems conference (MilCIS), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2015.

[在研究领域存在的问题] One of the major research challenges in this field is the unavailability of a comprehensive network based data set which can reflect modern network traffic scenarios, vast varieties of low footprint intrusions and depth structured information about the network traffic. Evaluating network intrusion detection systems research efforts, KDD98, KDDCUP99 and NSLKDD benchmark data sets were generated a decade ago. However, numerous current studies showed that for the current network threat environment, these data sets do not inclusively reflect network traffic and modern low footprint attacks. [本文的目的, 即做了什么, 不需要完全展开] Countering the unavailability of network benchmark data set challenges, this paper examines a UNSW-NB15 data set creation. // [具体的研究内容, 创新点] This data set has a hybrid of the real modern normal and the contemporary synthesized attack activities of the network traffic. Existing and novel methods are utilised to generate the features of the UNSWNB15 data set. [研究的优点, 研究的价值] This data set is available for research purposes and can be accessed from the link1.

Keywords- UNSW-NB15 data set; NIDS; low footprint attacks; pcap files; testbed

 

第三个Abstract例子

  1. Moustafa, Nour, and Jill Slay. "The evaluation of Network Anomaly Detection Systems: Statistical analysis of the UNSW-NB15 data set and the comparison with the KDD99 data set." Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective 25, no. 1-3 (2016): 18-31.

[研究领域的重要性] [ Over the last three decades, Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs), particularly, Anomaly Detection Systems (ADSs), have become more significant in detecting novel attacks than Signature Detection Systems (SDSs). ] [研究领域的背景介绍] [ Evaluating NIDSs using the existing benchmark data sets of KDD99 and NSLKDD does not reflect satisfactory results, due to three major issues: (1) their lack of modern low footprint attack styles, (2) their lack of modern normal traffic scenarios, and (3) a different distribution of training and testing sets. To address these issues, the UNSW-NB15 data set has recently been generated. This data set has nine types of the modern attacks fashions and new patterns of normal traffic, and it contains 49 attributes that comprise the flow based between hosts and the network packets inspection to discriminate between the observations, either normal or abnormal. ] [本文的研究目的, 研究的具体内容, 也就是这一篇的创新点] [ In this paper, we demonstrate the complexity of the UNSW-NB15 data set in three aspects. First, the statistical analysis of the observations and the attributes are explained. Second, the examination of feature correlations is provided. Third, five existing classifiers are used to evaluate the complexity in terms of accuracy and false alarm rates (FARs) and then, the results are compared with the KDD99 data set. ] [本文的研究效果] [ The experimental results show that UNSW-NB15 is more complex than KDD99 and is considered as a new benchmark data set for evaluating NIDSs. ]

KEYWORDS: Feature correlations; multivariate analysis; NIDSs; UNSW-NB15 data set

总结

  • 尽量少谈背景信息, 多谈新信息;
  • 避免在摘要第一句话重复标题或是标题的一部分, 摘要尽量简洁;

句法上注意

  • 尽量使用短句;
  • 注意时态, 完成的工作使用过去时, 结论使用现在时;
  • 多使用主动语态, A exceeds B, 而不是 B is exceeded by A;
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