论文写作指南-Introduction写法

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所属分类:研究生阶段
摘要这一篇文章主要讲关于paper中introduction的书写. 整个文章会包含三个部分, 分别是introduction的主要内容, 每一个部分的好词好句和introduction的例子分析.

文章目录(Table of Contents)

Introduction介绍

这一部分会很简单的来介绍introduction部分是如何进行书写的. 主要包括三个部分:

  • introduction的主要内容
  • 每一部分的好词好句
  • 范例分析

我们会在第一部分说明introduction的总体结构是什么, 即需要写些什么内容; 第二部分我们会对第一部分说明的每一部分说明一下好词好句; 最后一部分就是拿我觉得比较好的文章的introduction来简单分析一下他的introduction是如何来进行书写的.

这里的主要内容都是参考自下面的参考链接, 我后面的好词好句没有全部摘抄, 要看全部内容, 可以进行查看. 后面使用的论文会在使用的使用的时候进行说明.

参考链接Academic Phrasebank--Introduction

Introduction的结构

Introduction主要包含下面的八个部分, 这八个部分也可以分为三个大部分:

  • Establish a territory (确定领域)
    • establishing the context, background and/or importance of the topic (简单说明研究的背景和重要性)
    • giving a brief review of the relevant academic literature (对相关的领域的研究, 研究目前的进展, 文献进行回顾)
  • Establish a niche (确定地位)
    • identifying a problem, controversy or a knowledge gap in the field of study (说明在这个领域内存在的问题, 争议)
    • stating the aim(s) of the research and the research questions or hypotheses (说明研究的目的, 可以理解为要解决上面的问题)
  • Occupy the niche (占据位置)
    • providing a synopsis of the research design and method(s) (对本文的研究设计和方法进行简介, 使用了什么方法去解决上面的问题)
    • explaining the significance or value of the study (说明研究的价值, 解决了问题带来的好处, 解决这个问题的意义)
    • defining certain key terms (定义某些关键的术语)
    • providing an overview of the dissertation or report structure (说明文章的主体的结构)

对于一些比较短的文章, 我们可以对上面的内容进行缩减, 我们需要告诉读者:

  • what the topic is (文章的主题是什么, 研究的背景)
  • why it is important (为什么这个研究是重要的, 使用了什么方法解决了什么问题)
  • how the writing is organised (文章的结构是什么)

 

关于字数

不要超过2页. (should not excced two typed pages)

关于时态

  • 在提到过去的研究报道的时候, 一般使用现在完成时或是一般过去时. "It has been reported ..." / "It has previously been proved that ..." / "J.Kane reported ..."
  • 在提到过去研究中已经肯定的东西, 使用一般现在时.
  • 在谈论本研究的目的时, 一般使用现在时.  "This paper presents an analysis of ..."
  • 在讨论本研究的具体的方法和结果的时候, 一般使用过去式.

Introduction每一部分好词好句

这一部分会针对上面的introduction的结构, 即introduction需要写的每一部分, 来具体说明每一部分的好词好句.

这里会有八个部分, 就是对应上面introduction结构中的8个部分.

 

Establish the importance of the topic (这个研究的重要性)

为了说明一个事情的重要性, 我们有下面的四种方式.

  • X在解决...问题, 帮助...发展上有很大的作用, 所以他很重要
  • X得到了广泛的关注, 所以他很重要
  • X最近变得很热门, 所以他很重要.
  • X是一个问题, 他会导致..., 所以解决这个问题很重要.

下面的四个点就是针对这四个方向来进行叙述的.

 

The importance for the world or society(对世界和社会影响)

  • X is fast becoming a key instrument in … (X在某个领域变得非常重要)
  • X plays a critical/vital role in the maintenance of …
  • X can play an important role in addressing the issue of … (X在解决...问题上有很大的作用)
  • In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for …
  • Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for …
  • X is important for a wide range of scientific and industrial processes. (对科学和工业的发展是很重要的)
  • There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of … (有越来越多的研究意识到...的重要性)

 

The importance for the discipline(对学科的影响)

  • X is a classic problem in …
  • X is a dominant feature of …
  • X is an important aspect of …
  • X is a fundamental property of …
  • X has been studied by many researchers using … (X被许多学者进行研究)
  • X has been the subject of many classic studies in … (X是许多经典研究的主题)
  • X is an increasingly important area in applied (linguistics). (X在...领域越来越得到重视)
  • The issue of X has received considerable critical attention. (X得到了广泛的关注)
  • X has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields.

 

The importance for the topic--time frame given(对这方面主题的影响, 与时间相关)

  • Recently, there has been renewed interest in …
  • In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in … (最近, ...的研究涌现出一股兴趣)
  • Recent developments in X have heightened the need for …
  • The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards … (过去的一段时间...有很好的发展势头)
  • Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in … (学者对...展现出兴趣)
  • Recent trends in X have led to a proliferation of studies that … (近期对...的热门, 使得该方面的研究越来越多)
  • The changes experienced by X over the past decade remain unprecedented. (过去一段时间在...领域的改变是前所未有的)

 

The importance for the topic as a problem to be addressed(X是要解决的问题, 所以重要)

  • X is a major problem in …
  • X is associated with increased risk of …
  • It is now well established that X can impair …
  • The main challenge faced by many researchers is the …
  • X is one of the most frequently stated problems with …

也可以使用转折来引出X的问题. 使用however来开头.

  • However, a major problem with this kind of application is …
  • However, current methods of X have proven to be unreliable.
  • However, X can be adversely affected under certain conditions.

 

Referring to previous work to establish what is already known (对相关文献的回顾)

  • Extensive research has shown that …
  • Several attempts have been made to …
  • Several attempts have been made to … (之前人们做过一些尝试)
  • Previous research comparing X and Y has found …
  • Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that … (史密斯(1988)的调查显示…)
  • A number of cross-sectional studies suggest an association between X and Y…
  • A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies … (在这个领域发表了大量的文章, 这些文章包括...)
  • The theory holds that/ maintains that/ claims that (这个理论认为)

 

A problem in the field of study (研究领域存在的问题)

研究领域存在的问题, 我们也会从四个角度进行分析, 这四个角度还是有一些重合的, 不过不影响, 还是进行分别介绍. 四个角度分别如下:

  • 研究领域内出现有争议的地方(有互相不认同的地方)
  • 研究领域内先前的研究存在不足, 有问题没有解决, 研究被局限了, 研究时没有考虑什么, 数据集不够新
  • 研究领域内还没有被研究的内容
  • 研究领域内对某项研究知道的很少

其实我们在想问题的时候, 也是可以反向思考, 从这个四个角度进行思考, 看一下你的研究领域还存在什么样的问题, 还需要我们来解决什么样子的问题.

 

Identifying a controversy within the field of study (研究领域内的争论)

  • One major issue in early X research concerned …
  • To date there has been little agreement on what … (到目前为止)
  • One of the most significant current discussions in X is …
  • Questions have been raised about the use of animal subjects in … (问题已经被提出)
  • This concept has recently been challenged by X studies demonstrating … (这个观点最近收到了挑战)
  • More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about … (最近出现了相互矛盾的发现)
  • The issue of X has been a controversial and much disputed subject within the field of … (有争议的话题)

 

Explaining the inadequacies of previous studies (先前研究的不足)

  • One of the major research challenges in this field is the unavailability of ... (目前在研究领域最大的不足就是)
  • However, numerous current studies showed that for ... these data set do not inclusively reflect ... (但是, 在这个领域大量的研究表示出这些数据没有包容性)
  • Previous studies of X have not dealt with … (之前的研究没有解决)
  • Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
  • Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they … (这样的研究是不令人满意的)
  • Most studies in the field of X have only focused on … (大部分研究只局限在)
  • Such approaches, however, have failed to address …
  • Previous published studies are limited to local surveys. (先前的内容只局限在)
  • The research to date (up to now) has tended to focus on X rather than Y. (目前的研究趋势从X变向Y)
  • Smith's analysis does not take account of …, nor does she examine … (之前的研究没有考虑, 也没有考察...)
  • Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of …  (现在的研究只局限在有限的比较)
  • However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into … (现在还没有人做过系统的研究)
  • However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if … (大部分研究的数据集太老了)

 

Identifying the paucity or lack of previous research (先前研究的缺失)

  • No previous study has investigated X.
  • There has been no detailed investigation of …
  • There has been little quantitative analysis of …
  • Up to now, far too little attention has been paid to …
  • A search of the literature revealed few studies which … (对文献的搜索表明很少有研究...)
  • Few studies have investigated X in any systematic way … (很少有研究以系统的方法进行研究)
  • In addition, no research has been found that surveyed …
  • So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of X.
  • In contrast to X, there is much less information about effects of …
  • A systematic understanding of how X contributes to Y is still lacking. (X如何影响Y的理解还是缺失的)
  • Despite the importance of X, there remains a paucity of evidence on … (仍然缺乏证据表明)
  • To date, the problem has received scant attention in the research literature (问题被得到很少的注意)
  • To date, there are few studies that have investigated the association between … (很少有实验调查...之间的关联)
  • Although some research has been carried out on X, only two studies have attempted to investigate
  • While some research has been carried out on X, there is still very little scientific understanding of

 

Identifying a knowledge gap in the field of study (对某事了解很少)

  • Very little is currently known about X in …
  • Research to date has not yet determined …
  • There is still uncertainty, however, whether …
  • Little is known about X and it is not clear what factors …
  • Much uncertainty still exists about the relationship between …
  • However, few studies have investigated …/ the use of X has not been investigated. / far too little attention has been paid to/ the behaviour of X has not yet been investigated. / there have been no controlled studies which compare differences in … / much uncertainty still exists about the relation between …

 

Stating the purpose of the current research (研究的目的)

这里为介绍这篇文章研究的目的, 即如何解决上面存在的问题. 同时要说明解决这个问题的意义.

  • This study seeks to obtain data which will help to address these research gaps. (研究的目的就是解决上面提到的问题)
  • The specific objective of this study was to … (这个研究的具体目的是)
  • This study set out to investigate the usefulness of … (这个研究着手去研究..的实用性)
  • This dissertation seeks to explain the development of …
  • This study therefore set out to assess the effect of X …, and the effect of … (开始评估X的效果和...的效果)
  • The main aim of this study is to investigate the differences between X and Y.
  • The primary goal of this research is... (这个研究的主要目标是)
  • the intention of this paper is to survey ... (本文的主要目标是研究)
  • The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the feature of ...
  • The main purpose of our recent work was to examine the properties of ... (我们最近工作的主要目的是检查属性)
  • There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate … 2. To ascertain …

 

Describing the research design and the methods used (说明研究使用的方法)

这里就是简单描述你的实验, 即你是如何来做实验来解决上面的问题, 来达到你的实验的目的的.

这里的研究方法比较空的套话, 我们还需要根据自己的内容来增加一些内容进去. 自己实验中具体的研究的方法.

  • Data for this study were collected using … (数据来源的说明)
  • The research data in this thesis is drawn from four main sources: … (多个研究数据时候的来源)
  • This investigation takes the form of a case-study of the … (这项研究以案例的形式)
  • This study uses a qualitative case study approach to investigate … (这项研究使用定性分析的方式)
  • Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide … (采样定性和定量分析的方式)
  • A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the data analysis.
  • Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this investigation. (定性和定量分析都被使用)
  • A holistic approach is utilised, integrating X, Y and Z material to establish … (一个综合的方式被使用, 综合了X, Y和Z)
  • The methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on

 

Describing the significance and limitations of the current study (优点和缺点)

这里一部分会说明本文使用的方法的优点和缺点. 通常情况下, 缺点也会放在结论部分(conclusions)来进行说明.

这里的优点和缺点是那种比较空的套话, 我们还需要根据自己的内容来增加一些内容进去.

 

The significance of the current study (研究的优势)

  • This is the first study to undertake a longitudinal analysis of … (时间上说明优势, 这个领域的第一篇)
  • The experimental work presented here provides one of the first investigations into how … (这里的实验第一次研究了...)
  • This study provides new insights into …
  • This work will generate fresh insight into …
  • The study offers some important insights into …
  • Understanding the link between X and Y will help …
  • The findings should make an important contribution to the field of ….
  • Characterisation of X is important for our increased understanding of …
  • It is hoped that this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of …
  • This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring …
  • This project provided an important opportunity to advance the understanding of …
  • Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on X by demonstrating … (证明了...所以很重要)
  • The problem is within the scope of ... (这个问题在...的研究范围之内)
  • Studies of these effect cover various aspects of ... (研究包含了各个方向)

 

The limitations of the current study (研究存在的不足)

  • This study is unable to encompass the entire … (这个文章没有能包含所有的)
  • Establishing X is beyond the scope of this study. (对X的研究超出了本文的研究范围)
  • A full discussion of X lies beyond the scope of this study. (对X的全面讨论超出了本文的范围, 即本没有全面讨论X)
  • Another potential problem is that the scope of my thesis may be too broad.
  • Due to practical constraints, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive review of… (由于实际的限制, 我们不能提供一个全面的回顾)
  • Our problem lies beyond the range of ... (我们的问题超出了...的范围)
  • Our studies with this technique are confined to one particular aspect ... (我们的研究只局限在一个特定的方向)

 

Define the key terms (定义关键词)

  • Throughout this paper, the term 'X' will refer to …
  • The phrase 'X' will be used in this study to describe the …
  • In this article, the abbreviation XYZ will be used to refer to … (缩写XYZ在本文中的含义是)

 

Outlining the structure of the paper or dissertation (文章的结构)

  • The essay has been organised in the following way. (总起)
  • The remaining part of the paper proceeds as follows: … (总起)
  • This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with … (总起)
  • The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study. (分论点叙述)
  • Chapter Four analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during … (分论点叙述)
  • Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how ... (分论点叙述)
  • 一些常用动词: section concerned with(关注于)/ describes / analysis / discusses / summarizes

 

Giving reasons for personal interest in the research (为什么对这个研究领域感兴趣)

  • 这个可写可不写, 原文是这么说的, "sometimes found in the humanities, and the applied human sciences"
  • I became interested in Xs after reading …
  • My interest in this area developed while I was …
  • I have worked closely with X for many years and …
  • My personal experience of X has prompted this research. (我的个人经历促成了这项研究)
  • My main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest.
  • It is my experience of working with X that has driven this research.

 

Stating the focus, aim, or argument of a short paper (较短文章中描述目的)

  • This paper attempts to show that …
  • The central thesis of this paper is that … (本文的核心论点是)
  • The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the … (本文的核心目的是回顾最近的研究)
  • This paper gives an account of … (本文描述了)
  • This paper analyses the impact of
  • This paper contests the claim that … (争辩说)
  • This paper provides an overview of … (概述了)
  • This paper reports on a study which …
  • This paper proposes a new methodology for … (提出了一种新的方法)
  • This paper describes the design and implementation of … (描述了设计和实现)

 

Introduction的例子

由于Introduction都是比较长, 而且这一篇的内容也已经有很多了, 所以这里只会放一个例子, 更多的例子会重新开一篇文章来进行讲解.

  1. Moustafa, Nour, and Jill Slay. "UNSW-NB15: a comprehensive data set for network intrusion detection systems (UNSW-NB15 network data set)." In 2015 military communications and information systems conference (MilCIS), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2015.

[研究的背景, 和研究的重要性][ Currently, due to the massive growth in computer networks and applications, many challenges arise for cyber security research. Intrusions /attacks can be defined as a set of events which are able to compromise the principles of computer systems, availability, authority, confidentiality and integrity, e.g. Firewall systems cannot detect modern attack environments and are not able to analyse network packets in depth. Because of these reasons, IDSs are designed to achieve high protection for the cyber security infrastructure. ] (有需要这个方法来解决的问题, 所以很重要)

[背景介绍, 相关文献回顾][ A Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) monitors network traffic flow to identify attacks. NIDSs are classified into misuse/signature and anomaly based. The signature based matches the existing of known attacks to detect intrusions. However, in the anomaly based, a normal profile is created from the normal behavior of the network, and any deviation from this is considered as attack. Further, the signature based NIDSs cannot detect unknown attacks, and for these anomaly NIDS are recommended in many studies. (对NIDS的介绍)]

[文献回顾(对KDD99数据集介绍)] [ The effectiveness of NIDS is evaluated based on their performance to identify attacks which requires a comprehensive data set that contains normal and abnormal behaviors. Older benchmark data sets are KDDCUP 99 and NSLKDD which have been widely adopted for evaluating NIDS performance. ] [研究领域存在的不足] [ It is perceived through several studies, evaluating a NIDS using these data sets does not reflect realistic output performance due to several reasons. First reason is the KDDCUP 99 data set contains a tremendous number of redundant records in the training set. The redundant records affect the results of detection biases toward the frequent records. Second, there are also multiple missing records that are a factor in changing the nature of the data. Third, The NSLKDD data set is the improved version of the KDDCUP 99, it tackles the several issues such as data unbalancing among the normal/abnormal records and the missing values. However, this data set is not a comprehensive representation of a modern low foot print attack environment. ] (说了三个该研究领域存在的不足, 先前的研究过时了)

[研究的目的, 提出一个数据集来解决上面的问题] [ The above reasons have instigated a serious challenge for the cyber security research group at the Australian Centre for Cyber Security (ACCS)2 and other researchers of this domain around the globe. Countering this challenge, this paper provides an effort in creating a UNSW-NB15 data set to evaluate NIDSs. ] [研究使用的方法] [ The IXIA PerfectStorm tool3 is utilised in the Cyber Range Lab of the ACCS to create a hybrid of the modern normal and abnormal network traffic. The abnormal traffic through the IXIA tool simulates nine families of attacks that are listed in Table VIII. The IXIA tool contains all information about new attacks that are updated continuously from a CVE site4 . This site is a dictionary of publicly known information security vulnerabilities and exposures. Capturing network traffic in the form of packets, the tcpdump5 tool is used. The simulation period was 16 hours on Jan 22, 2015 and 15 hours on Feb 17, 2015 for capturing 100 GBs. Further, each pcap file is divided into 1000 MB using the tcpdump tool. Creating reliable features from the pcap files, Argus6 and Bro-IDS7 tools are utilised. Additionally, twelve algorithms are developed using a C# language to analyse in-depth the flows of the connection packets. The data set is labelled from a ground truth table that contains all simulated attack types. This table is designed from an IXIA report that is generated during the simulation period. ] [研究的价值] [ The key characteristics of the UNSW-NB15 data set are a hybrid of the real modern normal behaviors and the synthetical attack activities. ]

[文章的结构] [ The rest of the paper is organised as follows: section 2 examines the general goal and orientation of any IDS data set. Section 3 exposes in-detail the existing benchmark datasets shortcomings. The synthetic environment configuration and generation of UNSW-NB15 details are given in section 4. Section 5 is a comparative analysis between the KDDCUP99 and the UNSW-NB15 data set. Section 6 displays the final shape about the files of the UNSW-NB15 data set. Finally, section 7 concludes the work and future intentions. ]

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